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AND binds before OR! You need a pair of parentheses, which is not a matter of "clarity", but pure logic necessity. The accepted answer is a bit misleading in this respect.
So that you eliminate the null from the check. The question as answered by Daniel is perfctly fine.
Note: Since someone claimed that the external link is dead in Sushant Butta's answer I've posted the content here as a separate answer.
Actually I wanted to compare two tables and find out whether a value from table b existed in table a or not and find out its behavior if the column contains null values.
So I just created an environment to test this behavior. The output came as expected. The first query behaved as expected but what happened to the second query?
Why didn't we get any output, what should have happened? Is there any difference in the query? We have introduced a null value in the table.
But how come it's behaving like this? The first query will be handled internally something like this. So a null will not create a problem here as my first two operands will either evaluate to true or false.
It will evaluate to null only. The second query will be handled as below. Since we are using an "AND" operator and anything other than true in any of the operand will not give me any output.
So how do we handle this? I know that is late to answer but could be useful for someone else You can use sub-query and convert the null to 0.
Null refers to an absence of data. So, you may not see records with columns containing null values when said columns are restricted using an "in" or "not in" clauses.
Learn more. The SQL standard does not explicitly define a default sort order for Nulls. Not all DBMS vendors implement this functionality, however.
Vendors who do not implement this functionality may specify different treatments for Null sorting in the DBMS. For instance, PostgreSQL versions prior to 8.
B-trees can handle equality and range queries on data that can be sorted into some ordering. Again, quoting from the PostgreSQL documentation: .
When an index is declared unique, multiple table rows with equal indexed values will not be allowed.
Nulls are not considered equal. A multicolumn unique index will only reject cases where all of the indexed columns are equal in two rows. This is consistent with the SQL -defined behavior of scalar Null comparisons.
Another method of indexing Nulls involves handling them as not distinct in accordance with the SQLdefined behavior.
For indexing purposes, NULLs compare as equal. Both of these indexing strategies are consistent with the SQLdefined behavior of Nulls.
Because indexing methodologies are not explicitly defined by the SQL standard, indexing strategies for Nulls are left entirely to the vendors to design and implement.
Both functions are abbreviations for searched CASE expressions. Otherwise, the value of the first parameter is returned. Some systems e. The Oracle NVL function accepts two parameters.
There is, however, one notable exception. This is important for several reasons. A parameter after the first non-NULL parameter could be a function, which could either be computationally expensive, invalid, or could create unexpected side effects.
For instance, if overloaded functions are supported by the RDBMS, SQL might not be able to automatically resolve to the correct function without knowing the data types of all parameters, including those for which Null is passed.
For example:. For example, the following. Most other major vendors do not support the Boolean type as defined in T as of These mistakes are usually the result of confusion between Null and either 0 zero or an empty string a string value with a length of zero, represented in SQL as ''.
Null is defined by the SQL standard as different from both an empty string and the numerical value 0 , however. While Null indicates the absence of any value, the empty string and numerical zero both represent actual values.
According to the SQL standard this is an invalid syntax and shall lead to an error message or an exception. The consequence is that no rows are found - regardless of whether rows with Nulls exist or not.
In a related, but more subtle example, a WHERE clause or conditional statement might compare a column's value with a constant.
It is often incorrectly assumed that a missing value would be "less than" or "not equal to" a constant if that field contains Null, but, in fact, such expressions return Unknown.
An example is below:. Similarly, Nulls are often confused with empty strings. When a Null is passed into this function, the function returns Null.
This can lead to unexpected results, if users are not well versed in 3-value logic. This is complicated by the fact that in some database interface programs or even database implementations like Oracle's , NULL is reported as an empty string, and empty strings may be incorrectly stored as NULL.
The markers he proposed were to stand for "Missing but Applicable" and "Missing but Inapplicable" , known as A-values and I-values , respectively.
Codd's recommendation, if accepted, would have required the implementation of a four-valued logic in SQL.
At various times, proposals have also been put forth to implement multiple user-defined Null markers in SQL. Because of the complexity of the Null-handling and logic systems required to support multiple Null markers, none of these proposals have gained widespread acceptance.
Chris Date and Hugh Darwen , authors of The Third Manifesto , have suggested that the SQL Null implementation is inherently flawed and should be eliminated altogether,  pointing to inconsistencies and flaws in the implementation of SQL Null-handling particularly in aggregate functions as proof that the entire concept of Null is flawed and should be removed from the relational model.
Another point of conflict concerning Nulls is that they violate the closed-world assumption model of relational databases by introducing an open-world assumption into it.
Nulls, however, operate under the open world assumption, in which some items stored in the database are considered unknown, making the database's stored knowledge of the world incomplete.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Further information: Three-valued logic. LastName , e. FirstName , pn. Wage , MAX e. For the gene, see NVL gene.
See also: Option type and Nullable type. Computer programming portal. October 14, October 21, Morgan Kaufmann.
Addison Wesley Publishing Company. Section 6. Section 4. SQL Server Central. Red Gate Software. Semantics in Databases.
Revised Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Section 8. Date , An introduction to database systems , 8th ed.
At least, that's how I've seen it used. The null pointer is often defined as 0, but this depends on the environment you are running in, and the specification of whatever operating system or language you are using.
In C, since you shouldn't embed control characters in your source code, this is represented in C strings with an escaped 0, i.
But a true NULL is not a value. It is the absence of a value. For a pointer, it means the pointer has nothing to point to.
In a database, it means there is no value in a field which is not the same thing as saying the field is blank, 0, or filled with spaces.
The actual value a given system or database file format uses to represent a NULL isn't necessarily 0x NULL is not guaranteed to be 0 -- its exact value is architecture-dependent.
Regardless, it's unlikely you'll ever encounter a system which uses an alternative character set like EBCDIC unless you're working on very obscure systems.
The sizes of the various types will differ on bit systems, but the integer values will be the same.
Some commenters have expressed doubt that NULL be equal to 0, but not be zero. Here is an example program, along with expected output on such a system:.
Learn more. Ask Question. Asked 10 years, 10 months ago. Active 1 month ago. Viewed k times.
Are there times when these three values can not be equal? Is this also true on 64 bit systems? John Kugelman k 61 61 gold badges silver badges bronze badges.
See stackoverflow. Active Oldest Votes. Null Pointers The integer constant literal 0 has different meanings depending upon the context in which it's used.
As such, even on this funny architecture, the following ways are still valid ways to check for a null pointer: if!
However you may see something similar to this code: if! References See Question 5. Thanks for pointing to the FAQ list.
However, see also c-faq. No, you won't compare ptr to all-bits-zero. This is not a memcmp , but this is a comparison using a builtin operator.
Aswell as with the other two versions with NULL and 0. Those three do the same things. You are taking the builtin comparison operator as a thing that would compare bit-strings.